The Effectiveness Differences Between Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Extract 100% and Carbamide Peroxide Gel 10% in Tooth Whitening (ex vivo)

  • Any Setyawati Dental Conservation, Dentistry Education Program, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Syifa Nabila Farah Fauziah Nur Dental School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Introduction: Discoloration can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. One of the discoloration treatments is teeth whitening. Teeth whitening process usually uses chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide which can cause side effects, namely gingival irritation. Previous research has found that malic acid in strawberries can whiten teeth. Watermelons contain greater malic acid than strawberries. Objective: To analyze theĀ  effectiveness of 100% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extract on teeth whitening. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental study with a total of 15 anterior post-extraction teeth which were discolored using black tea, divided into 3 groups. Group 1 was immersed in 100% watermelon extract, group 2 was immersed in 10% carbamide peroxide as positive control and group 3 was immersed in sterile aquades as negative control, for 56 hours, measured using a shade guide and spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using one way Anova. Results: The 100% watermelon extract was effective for teeth whitening. There was a significant difference between 100% watermelon extract compared to negative control (p < 0.05). However, there was also a significant difference between 100% watermelon extract, and 10% carbamide peroxide gel (p = 0.003). Conclusion: The watermelon extract has the ability as teeth whitening agent. However, further study is still needed to explore this result and determine the proper concentration for teeth whitening.


Grossman L, Oliet S, Del Rio C, Ilmu endodontik dalam praktek. Ed 11. Jakarta: EGC; 1995.
Ascheim K, Dale B, Esthetic dentistry: A clinical approach to techniques and material. 2nd ed. St. Louis(MO): Elsevier/Mosby; 2011.
Walton RE, Tarobinejad M. Prinsip dan praktek ilmu endodonsi. Ed 3. Jakarta: EGC; 2008.
Brenna F. Restorative dentistry: Treatment procedures and future prospects. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier/Mosby; 2011.
Margaretha J, Rianti D, Meizarini A. Effect of strawberry paste and carbamide peroxide gel 10% towards the brightness enamel tooth. Mater Dent J FKG UNAIR. 2008;1(1):2009-01.
Fauziah D. Colour change of enamel after application Averrhoa blimbi. J Dent Indonesia. 2012;19(3):53-6.
Pramesti A, Jasrin TA, Hidayat OT. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth. Padjajaran Journal of Dentistry. 2013;25(1):15-20.
Octarina, Aprilianti E. The effect of citrus limon and whitening toothpaste to teeth color changes (study on the right maxillary central incisor of 18 year old female). In: Proceedings of The International Dental Conference of Sumatera Utara: Advances in Health Sciences Research [Conference Proceedings on the Internet]; 2017 Dec 7-9; North Sumatera. Beijing: Atlantis Press; 2017.
Wihardjo S. Bertanam semangka. Yogyakarta: Kanisius; 1993.
Ariana TR, Wibisono G, Praptiningsih RS. Pengaruh perasan buah lemon terhadap peningkatan warna gigi. Media Dental Intelektual. 2015; 2(1):74-78
Sluzker A, Knosel M, Athanasiou AE. Sensitivity of digital dental photo CIE L*a*b* analysis compared to spectrophotometer clinical assessments over 6 months. Am J Dent. 2011;24(5):300-4.
Puspasari N, Effendi M, Nugraeni Y. Pengaruh pemberian jus apel (Malus sylvestris Mill.) varietas anna pada gigi yang telah direndam larutan kopi terhadap pemutihan gigi secara in vitro. Insisiva Dent J: Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Insisiva. 2012;1(2):17-19.
Caballero AB, Navarro LF, Lorenzo JA. At home vital bleaching: A comparison of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide treatment. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11:E94-E99.
Rivero D. Resistence to cold and heat stress: Accumulation of phenolic compunds in tomato and watermelon plants. Plant Sci. 2001;160:3015-321.
Saputro B. Pengaruh konsentrasi jus buah tomat (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) terhadap perubahan warna gigi dalam proses pemutihan gigi secara in vitro [Skripsi]. Semarang: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro; 2009.
Joiner A. The bleaching of teeth: A review of the literature. J Dent. 2006;34:412-419.
How to Cite
SETYAWATI, Any; NUR, Syifa Nabila Farah Fauziah. The Effectiveness Differences Between Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Extract 100% and Carbamide Peroxide Gel 10% in Tooth Whitening (ex vivo). Journal of Indonesian Dental Association, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 31-36, feb. 2020. ISSN 2621-6175. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 sep. 2021. doi:
Research Article