Dental and Oral Health Status of Elementary School Children in Central Lampung
Introduction: Dental caries and gingivitis are the most prevalent oral health problems in Indonesian elementary school children. Predictors that are significantly associated with dental caries and gingivitis in children are the parents’ socioeconomic status and children’s oral health behavior. Terbanggi Besar district is the largest area and population in Lampung Province. The lack of updated dental and oral health data needs to be refined to address oral health disparities and achieve improvements.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the dental and oral health status of grade V and VI elementary school children in Terbanggi Besar district, Central Lampung.
Method: This cross-sectional study elected 410 students from 5 public elementary schools using convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and oral health behavior data were retrieved from a self-administered questionnaire. In addition, a clinical examination consisted of the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, the Gingival Index (GI), and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHIS). The Mann-Whitney statistical test was used to analyze the differences in dental caries severity and gingival status between selected variables.
Results: Dental caries was present in 75.6% of children, while gingivitis was present in 52% of children. The mean DMFT score was significantly higher in children with poor oral hygiene (2.80 + 2.67, p = 0.001). The mean GI score was significantly higher in children aged 12 years old or above (0.37 + 0.48, p = 0.025) and in those that had unemployed fathers (0.25 + 0.29, p = 0.030) and poor oral hygiene (0.31 + 0.40, p = 0.000).
Conclusion: Improving dental and oral health promotion with regard to elementary school children is highly recommended. The dental and oral health status of grade V and VI elementary school children in Terbanggi Besar district in Central Lampung was found to be moderate, with a high prevalence of dental caries.
Indonesia. The Ministry of Health. Basic Health Research Survey (RISKESDAS) 2018: Lampung Province Health Profile. Jakarta: National Institute of Health Research and Development; 2018.
Gultom E, Sormin T. Analisis status kesehatan gigi dan kebutuhan perawatan gigi pada murid-murid SD di Kota Bandar Lampung. Jurnal Keperawatan. 2017;13(1):67-74.
Indonesia. Regional Government of Central Lampung Regency. Central Lampung District Health Profile 2015. Lampung : Gunung Sugih; 2016.
Selwitz R, Ismail A, Pitts N. Dental caries. Lancet. 2007;369:51–59.
Adiatman M, Yuvana AL, Nasia AA, Rahardjo A, Maharani DA, Zhang S. Dental and gingival status of 5 and 12-year-old children in Jakarta and its satellite cities. J Dent Indones. 2016;23(1):5-9.
Hamudeng AM, Fadhillah F. The prevalence of caries and gingivitis in elementary school children in grade IV, V and VI in east Sinjai district. J Int Dent Med Res. 2019;12(2):695-699.
Hadnyanawati H. Hubungan kebersihan gigi dan mulut dengan gingivitis pada siswa sekolah dasar kelas V di kabupaten Jember. JKG UI. 2002;9(2):10-12.
Pintauli S. Hubungan perilaku pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut terhadap status kesehatan gigi dan mulut siswa SD dan SMP di Medan. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2010;16(4): 376-390.
Narulita L, Diansari V, Sungkar S. Oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S) pada murid kelas IV SD negeri 24 Kuta Alam. J Caninus Dent. 2016;1(4):6 – 8.
Kohn WG, Collins AS, Cleveland JL, Harte JA, Eklund KJ, Malvitz DM; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings--2003. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;52(RR-17):1-61.
World Health Organization. Oral health surveys: basic methods. 5th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
Lukacs JR. Gender differences in oral health in South Asia: Metadata imply multifactorial biological and cultural cause. Am J Hum Biol. 2011;23(3): 398-411.
Maharani DA, Zhang S, Gao SS, Chu CH, Rahardjo A. Dental caries and the erosive tooth wear status of 12-year-old children in Jakarta, Indonesia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(16):2994.
Lukacs JR. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology. Clin Oral Invest. 2011;15:649-656.
Cianetti S, Lombardo G, Lupatelli E, Rossi G, Abraha I, Pagano S, Paglia L. Dental caries, parents educational level, family income and dental service attendance among children in Italy. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2017 Mar;18(1):15-18.
Akbar FH. Relationship between body mass index with dental caries and the effect of socioeconomic status in rural and urban in Indonesia in the year of 2018. Makassar Dent J. 2020;9(2):131-137.
Wening GR, Bramantoro T, Palupi R, Ramadhani A, Alvita D. Overview of dental caries severity and body mass index (BMI) on elementary school children. J Int Oral Health. 2019;11(7):S48-55.
Pitriyanti L, Septarini NW. Determinan karies gigi pada anak sekolah dasar di pulau Nusa Penida, Klungkung, Bali. Jurnal Virgin. 2016;2(1):1-14.
Cronin AJ, Claffey N, Stassen LF. Who is at risk? Periodontal disease risk analysis made accessible for the general dental practitioner. British Dent J. 2008;205(3): 131-137.
Bashirian S, Seyedzadeh-Sabounchi S, Shirahmadi S, Soltanian AR, Karimi-Shahanjarini A, Vahdatinia F. Socio-demographic determinants as predictors of oral hygiene status and gingivitis in schoolchildren aged 7-12 years old: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0208886.
Al-Haddad KA, Ibrahim YT, Al-Haddad AM, Al-Hebshi NN. Assessment of gingival health status among 5- and 12-year-old children in Yemen: A cross-sectional study. ISRN Dent. 2013;2013:352621.
Chen X, Ye W, Zhan JY, Wang X, Tai BJ, Hu Y, et al. Periodontal status of Chinese adolescents: findings from the 4th national oral health survey. Chin J Dent Res. 2018;21(3):195-203.
Nobre CM, Fernandes-Costa AN, de Melo Soares MS, Pugliesi DM, de Vasconcelos Gurgel BC. Periodontal disease detection in primary and mixed dentitions. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2016;17(5):407-411.
Tadakamadla SK, Tadakamadla J, Kroon J, Lalloo R, Johnson NW. Effect of family characteristics on periodontal diseases in children and adolescents-A systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2020;18(1):3-16.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.