Antibiofilm of Arumanis Mango Leaves (Mangifera indica L.) Ethanol Extract Against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

  • Evangelista Rachel Hepziba Undergraduate student, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Trisakti University, Indonesia
  • Sheila Soesanto Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia
  • Armelia Sari Widyarman Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia

Abstract

 
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen bacteria that forms biofilm and induces acute inflammation associated with dentoalveolar abscess, which needs antibiotics such as amoxicillin for the treatment. Due to antibiotic resistance and various side effects, natural ingredients are needed as an alternative treatment. Arumanis mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.) contains mangiferin, flavonoid, and tannin which are expected to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm formation. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of Mangifera indica L. leaves against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Methods: This study was in vitro laboratory experiment with post test only control group design. Antibacterial test was carried out by plate count method and antibiofilm test was carried out by microtiter plate biofilm assay method. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was cultured in BHI broth in 37oC for 24h with anaerobic condition. The present study used ethanol extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves in 6 different concentrations: 3,125%, 6,25%, 12,5%, 25%, 50%, and 100%. Amoxicillin was used as positive control and DMSO 10% used as negative control. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-wilk test, One-way ANOVA test, and post hoc Tukey HSD test with p<0,05 as the level of significance. Results: The most effective concentration to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was 100% extract compared to negative control (p<0,05). The most effective concentration against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was 100% extract in 3hr incubation compared to negative control (p<0,05). Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves has been shown in vitro to have antibacterial and antibiofilm properties against Staphylococcus aureus.

References

Sanders JL, Houck RC. Dental Abscess. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021.
Shweta N, Prakash SK. Dental abscess: a microbiological review. Dent Res J. 2013;10(5):585–591.
Archer NK, Mazaitis MJ, Costerton JW, Leid JG, Powers ME, Shirtliff ME. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: properties, regulation, and roles in human disease. Virulence. 2011;2(5):445–459.
Taylor TA, Unakal CG. Staphylococcus aureus. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021.
Periasamy S, Joo H-S, Duong AC, Bach T-HL, Tan VY, Chatterjee SS. How Staphylococcus aureus biofilms develop their characteristic structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2012;109(4):1281–1286.
Huang R, Li M, Gregory RL. Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm. Virulence. 2011;2(5):435–444.
Siqueira JF, Rôças IN. Microbiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26(2):255–273.
Akhavan BJ, Khanna NR, Vijhani P. Amoxicillin. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 [cited 2021 May 13]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK4822 50/
Evans J, Hannoodee M, Wittler M. Amoxicillin clavulanate. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021.
Cardenas V, Mendoza R, Chiong L, del Aguila E. Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity of the Ethanol Extract vs Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) in Different Concentrations: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2020;21(2):202-206
Humaida R. Strategy to handle resistance of antibiotics. J Major. 2014;3(7):113–120.
Bantawa K, Sah SN, Subba Limbu D, Subba P, Ghimire A. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio isolated from chicken, pork, buffalo and goat meat in eastern Nepal. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12:766
Deyno S, Fekadu S, Astatkie A. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial agents in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2017;6:85
Chirayath RB, A. AV, Jayakumar R, Biswas R, Vijayachandran LS. Development of Mangifera indica leaf extract incorporated carbopol hydrogel and its antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2019;178:377–384.
Cahyanto T, Fadillah A, Ulfa RA, Hasby RM, Kinasih I. Kadar Mangiferin Pada Lima Kultivar Pucuk Daun Mangga (Mangifera indica L.). Al-Kauniyah J Biol. 2020;13(2):242–249.
Kurniasih R. Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Gigi Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta 2016. :11.
Vukosavljevic D, Custodio W, Buzalaf MAR, Hara AT, Siqueira WL. Acquired pellicle as a modulator for dental erosion. Arch Oral Biol. 2014;59(6):631–638.
Joshua M, Takudzwa M. Antibacterial Properties of Mangifera Indica On Staphylococcus aureus. Afr J Cln Exper Microbiol. 2013;14(2):62-74.
Lu L, Hu W, Tian Z, Yuan D, Yi G, Zhou Y, et al. Developing natural products as potential anti-biofilm agents. Chin Med. 2019;14:11-17
Ningsih Dr. Ekstrak Daun Mangga (Mangifera Indica L.) Sebagai Antijamur Terhadap Jamur Candida Albicans dan Identifikasi Golongan Senyawanya. J Kim Ris. 2017;2(1):61.
Ma Y, Ding S, Fei Y. Antimicrobial activity of cathechins against foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Salmonella . Vol. 106. Elsevier; 2019. 78–80 p.
Solano C, Echeverz M, Lasa I. Biofilm dispersion and quorum sensing. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014;18:96–104.
Ikalinus R, Widyastuti SK, Setiasih NLE. Skrining Fitokimia Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Batang Kelor (Moringa oleifera). Indones Med Veterinus. 2015;4(1):75.
Madduluri S, Rao KB, Sitaram B. In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Five Indigenous Plants Extracts Against Five Bacteria Pathogens of Humans. Int J of Pharm and Pharm Sci. 2013;5:679–684.
Norhayati N, Ujrumiah S, Noviany A, Carabelly AN. Antibacterial Potential of Kapul Fruit Skin (Baccaurea macrocarpa) on Streptococcus sanguis. Odonto Dent J. 2019;6(2):118.
Aksara R, Musa WJA, Alio L. Identifikasi Senyawa Alkaloid Dari Ekstrak Metanol Kulit Batang Mangga (Mangifera indica L.). J Entropi. 2013;3(1):6.
Husain FM, Ahmad I, Al-thubiani AS, Abulreesh HH, AlHazza IM, Aqil F. Leaf Extracts of Mangifera indica L. Inhibit Quorum Sensing – Regulated Production of Virulence Factors and Biofilm in Test Bacteria. Front Microbiol.2017;8:727
Published
2023-01-09
How to Cite
HEPZIBA, Evangelista Rachel; SOESANTO, Sheila; WIDYARMAN, Armelia Sari. Antibiofilm of Arumanis Mango Leaves (Mangifera indica L.) Ethanol Extract Against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Journal of Indonesian Dental Association, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 99-105, jan. 2023. ISSN 2621-6175. Available at: <http://jurnal.pdgi.or.id/index.php/jida/article/view/846>. Date accessed: 26 feb. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.32793/jida.v5i2.846.
Section
Research Article