Differences of bone quality in patients type II diabetes mellitus with mandibular cortical index analysis on panoramic radiograph

  • Norlaila Sarifah Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, 70236 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9937-2714
  • Tri Nurrahman Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, 70236

Abstract

Objectives: This study aims to determine the quality of the mandibular cortex in Type II diabetes mellitus patients by analyzing the Mandibular Cortical Index on panoramic radiography.
Materials and Methods: This type of research is unpaired comparative analytical design research using a cross-sectional stratified random sampling method and the Mann-Whitney statistical test. The subjects in this study were patients who visited and were diagnosed with type 2 DM for ≤ 5 years and > 5 years by doctors at the Endocrine Metabolic Internal Medicine Sub-Specialist Polyclinic, Ulin Hospital, Banjarmasin.
Results: Respondents who had suffered ≤ 5 years had the highest mandibular cortical C2 index value of 10 (58.8%). Respondents who suffered > 5 years had the highest mandibular cortical C3 index value of 10 (58.8%). Diabetes mellitus patients with mandibular cortical C3 index value were ranked highest out of a total of 34 samples and were found in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus > 5 years.
Conclusion: Patients with diabetes mellitus had poor bone quality, especially patients suffering from diabetes mellitus > 5 years.

Author Biographies

Norlaila Sarifah, Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, 70236
Staff
Tri Nurrahman, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, 70236
Staff

References

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Nugroho PS, Tianingrum NA, Sunarti S, Rachman A, Fahrurodzi DS, Amiruddin R. Predictor Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia, based on National Health Survey. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2020;16(1):126–30.
Tim Riskesdas 2018. Laporan Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan RISKESDAS 2018 [Internet]. 2019. Available from: www.litbang.depkes.go.id
Leena K, Huq MN, Ahmed R, Enam A, Rizwan AAM. Diabetes Mellitus & Its Relation to Oral Manifestation – A Review. World J Pharm Res. 2022;11(5):135–44.
Putri A, Nurrachman AS, Epsilawati L, Azhari A. Penilaian kualitas kortikal mandibula pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 dengan analisis radiomorfometrik pada radiograf panoramik. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI). 2020 May 10;4(1):23.
Limeira FIR, Rebouças PRM, Diniz DN, de Melo DP, Bento PM. Decrease in Mandibular Cortical in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Combined with Poor Glycemic Control. Braz Dent J. 2017 Sep 1;28(5):552–8.
Romero-Díaz C, Duarte-Montero D, Gutiérrez-Romero SA, Mendivil CO. Diabetes and Bone Fragility. Vol. 12, Diabetes Therapy. Adis; 2021. p. 71–86.
David AP, Varma B, Kurup S, Sam DM, Aravind MS, Chandy ML. Assessment of Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible in Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Non-Diabetic Individuals. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2017 Nov 1;11(11):35–9.
Zeid AF, Ahmed AS, Shohdy MT, Assy MMH. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Zagazig University Hospitals. Egypt J Hosp Med. 2020;80:599–607.
Reema N, Jain J, Singh TG, Banait S. A Study of Magnitude and Correlates of Altered Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients of Central Rural India. International Journal of Advances in Medicine. 2020 Aug 25;7(9):1380–7.
Ho-Pham LT, Chau PMN, Do AT, Nguyen HC, Nguyen T v. Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trabecular Bone Density but Lower Cortical Bone Density: The Vietnam Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporosis International. 2018 Sep 1;29(9):2059–67.
Jang M, Kim H, Lea S, Oh S, Kim JS, Oh B. Effect of Duration of Diabetes on Bone Mineral Density: A Population Study on East Asian Males. BMC Endocr Disord. 2018 Sep 5;18(61):1–9.
Putri A, Nurrachman AS, Epsilawati L, Azhari. Penilaian Kualitas Kortikal Mandibula Pasien Diabetes mellitus Tipe 2 dengan Analisis Radiomorfometrik pada Radiograf Panoramik. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI). 2020 May 10;4(1):23–6.
Compston J. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Bone. J Intern Med. 2018 Feb 1;283(2):140–53.
Poiana C, Capatina C. Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Acta Endocrinologica . 2019;15(2):231–6.
Starup-Linde J, Lykkeboe S, Handberg A, Vestergaard P, Høyem P, Fleischer J, et al. Glucose variability and low bone turnover in people with type 2 diabetes. Bone. 2021 Dec 1;153.
Zhang C, Wei W, Chi M, Wan Y, Li X, Qi M, et al. FOXO1 Mediates Advanced Glycation End Products Induced Mouse Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 Cell Apoptosis and Dysfunctions. J Diabetes Res. 2019;1(1):1–11.
Aryana IGPS, Rini SS, Soejono CH. Importance of Sclerostin as Bone-Muscle Mediator Crosstalk. Ann Geriatr Med Res. 2022 Jun 1;26(2):72–82.
Asadipooya K, Uy EM. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), Receptor for AGEs, Diabetes, and Bone: Review of the Literature. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Jul 23;3(10):1799–818.
Eninanc I, Yeler DY, Cinar Z. Evaluation of The Effect of Bruxism on Mandibular Cortical Bone Using Radiomorphometric Indices on Panoramic Radiographs. Niger J Clin Pract. 2021;24(11):1742–8.
Fauziah H, Sumarsongko T, Azhari A. Perbedaan Ketinggian Tulang Kortikal Mandibula Antara Penderita Bruxism dan Bukan Penderita Bruxism berdasarkan Indeks Panoramik Mandibular. Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran. 2020 Aug 31;32(2):113–8.
Epsilawati L, Pramanik F, Ambarlita Y. Assessment of The Mandibular  Cortical Bone Quality in Patient  with  Diabetes Mellitus Type II. Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. 2018;2(2):1–5.
Ribeiro RA, Barbosa J de S, Amaral JMBL do, Franco CR, Cortes ARG, Costa C. Correlation Between Index Panoramic Radiomorfometric and Primary Stability of Implants. RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia. 2018 Sep;66(3):219–24.
Singh A, Handa H, Shinde BM and CV. Evaluation of Radiomorphometric Indices of Normal and Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Female Patients by Radiographs. Int J Adv Res (Indore). 2019 Jun 30;7(6):952–64.
Wai A, Yeung K, Mozos I. The Innovative and Sustainable Use of Dental Panoramic Radiographs for the Detection of Osteoporosis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(2449):1–11.
Alkhader M, Aldawoodyeh A, Abdo N. Usefulness of Measuring Bone Density of Mandibular Condyle in Patients at Risk of Osteoporosis: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study. Eur J Dent. 2018 Jul 1;12(3):363–8.
Karadag I, Yilmaz HG. Evaluation of Change in Trabecular Bone Structure Surrounding Dental Implants by Fractal Dimension Analysis and Comparison with Radiomorphometric Indicators: A Retrospective Study. PeerJ. 2022 Mar 22;10(13145):1–14.
Firman RN, Sufiawati I, Primarti RS, Nurrachman AS, Damayanti MA. Mandibular Bone Quality of Panoramic Radiographs in HIV-Infected Children. Dentino J Kedokt Gigi. 2020;5(1):85–9.
Vijay G, Chitroda P, Katti G, Shahbaz S, Baba I, Bhuvaneshwari. Prediction of Osteoporosis Using Dental Radiographs and Age in Females. J Midlife Health. 2015;6(2).
Govindraju P, Mahesh Kumar TS, Chandra P, Balaji P, Sowbhagya MB. Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible: Biomarker for Osteoporosis. In: Biomarkers in Bone Disease. Preedy V. Springer, Dordrecht; 2015. p. 1–23.
Noda M, Kawashima Y, Ito K, Hirahara N, Sawada E, Iizuka N, et al. Assessment of Maxillary Fracture Risk Ising Classification of The Mandibular Inferior Cortical Shape by Pantomography. J Hard Tissue Biol. 2018;27(2):117–20.
Azhari A. the Analysis of Mandibular Trabeculae Alveolar Process on Post-Menopausal Women Through Panoramic Radiograph. Dentika Dent J. 2017;20(2):52–6.
Ikimi NU, Ebuta AN, Ebikwo A, Abande BI. Knowledge and Perception of Medical Doctors in Abuja, Nigeria. Oral Health and Dentistry. 2018;3(2):583–91.
Nugroho PS, Tianingrum NA, Sunarti S, Rachman A, Fahrurodzi DS, Amiruddin R. Predictor Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia, based on National Health Survey. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2020;16(1):126–30.
Tim Riskesdas 2018. Laporan Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan RISKESDAS 2018 [Internet]. 2019. Available from: www.litbang.depkes.go.id
Leena K, Huq MN, Ahmed R, Enam A, Rizwan AAM. Diabetes Mellitus & Its Relation to Oral Manifestation – A Review. World J Pharm Res. 2022;11(5):135–44.
Putri A, Nurrachman AS, Epsilawati L, Azhari A. Penilaian kualitas kortikal mandibula pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 dengan analisis radiomorfometrik pada radiograf panoramik. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI). 2020 May 10;4(1):23.
Limeira FIR, Rebouças PRM, Diniz DN, de Melo DP, Bento PM. Decrease in Mandibular Cortical in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Combined with Poor Glycemic Control. Braz Dent J. 2017 Sep 1;28(5):552–8.
Romero-Díaz C, Duarte-Montero D, Gutiérrez-Romero SA, Mendivil CO. Diabetes and Bone Fragility. Vol. 12, Diabetes Therapy. Adis; 2021. p. 71–86.
David AP, Varma B, Kurup S, Sam DM, Aravind MS, Chandy ML. Assessment of Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible in Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Non-Diabetic Individuals. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2017 Nov 1;11(11):35–9.
Zeid AF, Ahmed AS, Shohdy MT, Assy MMH. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Zagazig University Hospitals. Egypt J Hosp Med. 2020;80:599–607.
Reema N, Jain J, Singh TG, Banait S. A Study of Magnitude and Correlates of Altered Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients of Central Rural India. International Journal of Advances in Medicine. 2020 Aug 25;7(9):1380–7.
Ho-Pham LT, Chau PMN, Do AT, Nguyen HC, Nguyen T v. Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trabecular Bone Density but Lower Cortical Bone Density: The Vietnam Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporosis International. 2018 Sep 1;29(9):2059–67.
Jang M, Kim H, Lea S, Oh S, Kim JS, Oh B. Effect of Duration of Diabetes on Bone Mineral Density: A Population Study on East Asian Males. BMC Endocr Disord. 2018 Sep 5;18(61):1–9.
Putri A, Nurrachman AS, Epsilawati L, Azhari. Penilaian Kualitas Kortikal Mandibula Pasien Diabetes mellitus Tipe 2 dengan Analisis Radiomorfometrik pada Radiograf Panoramik. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI). 2020 May 10;4(1):23–6.
Compston J. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Bone. J Intern Med. 2018 Feb 1;283(2):140–53.
Poiana C, Capatina C. Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Acta Endocrinologica . 2019;15(2):231–6.
Starup-Linde J, Lykkeboe S, Handberg A, Vestergaard P, Høyem P, Fleischer J, et al. Glucose variability and low bone turnover in people with type 2 diabetes. Bone. 2021 Dec 1;153.
Zhang C, Wei W, Chi M, Wan Y, Li X, Qi M, et al. FOXO1 Mediates Advanced Glycation End Products Induced Mouse Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 Cell Apoptosis and Dysfunctions. J Diabetes Res. 2019;1(1):1–11.
Aryana IGPS, Rini SS, Soejono CH. Importance of Sclerostin as Bone-Muscle Mediator Crosstalk. Ann Geriatr Med Res. 2022 Jun 1;26(2):72–82.
Asadipooya K, Uy EM. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), Receptor for AGEs, Diabetes, and Bone: Review of the Literature. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Jul 23;3(10):1799–818.
Eninanc I, Yeler DY, Cinar Z. Evaluation of The Effect of Bruxism on Mandibular Cortical Bone Using Radiomorphometric Indices on Panoramic Radiographs. Niger J Clin Pract. 2021;24(11):1742–8.
Fauziah H, Sumarsongko T, Azhari A. Perbedaan Ketinggian Tulang Kortikal Mandibula Antara Penderita Bruxism dan Bukan Penderita Bruxism berdasarkan Indeks Panoramik Mandibular. Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran. 2020 Aug 31;32(2):113–8.
Epsilawati L, Pramanik F, Ambarlita Y. Assessment of The Mandibular  Cortical Bone Quality in Patient  with  Diabetes Mellitus Type II. Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. 2018;2(2):1–5.
Ribeiro RA, Barbosa J de S, Amaral JMBL do, Franco CR, Cortes ARG, Costa C. Correlation Between Index Panoramic Radiomorfometric and Primary Stability of Implants. RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia. 2018 Sep;66(3):219–24.
Singh A, Handa H, Shinde BM and CV. Evaluation of Radiomorphometric Indices of Normal and Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Female Patients by Radiographs. Int J Adv Res (Indore). 2019 Jun 30;7(6):952–64.
Wai A, Yeung K, Mozos I. The Innovative and Sustainable Use of Dental Panoramic Radiographs for the Detection of Osteoporosis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(2449):1–11.
Alkhader M, Aldawoodyeh A, Abdo N. Usefulness of Measuring Bone Density of Mandibular Condyle in Patients at Risk of Osteoporosis: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study. Eur J Dent. 2018 Jul 1;12(3):363–8.
Karadag I, Yilmaz HG. Evaluation of Change in Trabecular Bone Structure Surrounding Dental Implants by Fractal Dimension Analysis and Comparison with Radiomorphometric Indicators: A Retrospective Study. PeerJ. 2022 Mar 22;10(13145):1–14.
Firman RN, Sufiawati I, Primarti RS, Nurrachman AS, Damayanti MA. Mandibular Bone Quality of Panoramic Radiographs in HIV-Infected Children. Dentino J Kedokt Gigi. 2020;5(1):85–9.
Vijay G, Chitroda P, Katti G, Shahbaz S, Baba I, Bhuvaneshwari. Prediction of Osteoporosis Using Dental Radiographs and Age in Females. J Midlife Health. 2015;6(2).
Govindraju P, Mahesh Kumar TS, Chandra P, Balaji P, Sowbhagya MB. Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible: Biomarker for Osteoporosis. In: Biomarkers in Bone Disease. Preedy V. Springer, Dordrecht; 2015. p. 1–23.
Noda M, Kawashima Y, Ito K, Hirahara N, Sawada E, Iizuka N, et al. Assessment of Maxillary Fracture Risk Ising Classification of The Mandibular Inferior Cortical Shape by Pantomography. J Hard Tissue Biol. 2018;27(2):117–20.
Azhari A. the Analysis of Mandibular Trabeculae Alveolar Process on Post-Menopausal Women Through Panoramic Radiograph. Dentika Dent J. 2017;20(2):52–6.
Ikimi NU, Ebuta AN, Ebikwo A, Abande BI. Knowledge and Perception of Medical Doctors in Abuja, Nigeria. Oral Health and Dentistry. 2018;3(2):583–91.
Nugroho PS, Tianingrum NA, Sunarti S, Rachman A, Fahrurodzi DS, Amiruddin R. Predictor Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia, based on National Health Survey. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2020;16(1):126–30.
Tim Riskesdas 2018. Laporan Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan RISKESDAS 2018 [Internet]. 2019. Available from: www.litbang.depkes.go.id
Leena K, Huq MN, Ahmed R, Enam A, Rizwan AAM. Diabetes Mellitus & Its Relation to Oral Manifestation – A Review. World J Pharm Res. 2022;11(5):135–44.
Putri A, Nurrachman AS, Epsilawati L, Azhari A. Penilaian kualitas kortikal mandibula pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 dengan analisis radiomorfometrik pada radiograf panoramik. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI). 2020 May 10;4(1):23.
Limeira FIR, Rebouças PRM, Diniz DN, de Melo DP, Bento PM. Decrease in Mandibular Cortical in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Combined with Poor Glycemic Control. Braz Dent J. 2017 Sep 1;28(5):552–8.
Romero-Díaz C, Duarte-Montero D, Gutiérrez-Romero SA, Mendivil CO. Diabetes and Bone Fragility. Vol. 12, Diabetes Therapy. Adis; 2021. p. 71–86.
David AP, Varma B, Kurup S, Sam DM, Aravind MS, Chandy ML. Assessment of Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible in Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Non-Diabetic Individuals. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2017 Nov 1;11(11):35–9.
Zeid AF, Ahmed AS, Shohdy MT, Assy MMH. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Zagazig University Hospitals. Egypt J Hosp Med. 2020;80:599–607.
Reema N, Jain J, Singh TG, Banait S. A Study of Magnitude and Correlates of Altered Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients of Central Rural India. International Journal of Advances in Medicine. 2020 Aug 25;7(9):1380–7.
Ho-Pham LT, Chau PMN, Do AT, Nguyen HC, Nguyen T v. Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trabecular Bone Density but Lower Cortical Bone Density: The Vietnam Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporosis International. 2018 Sep 1;29(9):2059–67.
Jang M, Kim H, Lea S, Oh S, Kim JS, Oh B. Effect of Duration of Diabetes on Bone Mineral Density: A Population Study on East Asian Males. BMC Endocr Disord. 2018 Sep 5;18(61):1–9.
Putri A, Nurrachman AS, Epsilawati L, Azhari. Penilaian Kualitas Kortikal Mandibula Pasien Diabetes mellitus Tipe 2 dengan Analisis Radiomorfometrik pada Radiograf Panoramik. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI). 2020 May 10;4(1):23–6.
Compston J. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Bone. J Intern Med. 2018 Feb 1;283(2):140–53.
Poiana C, Capatina C. Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Acta Endocrinologica . 2019;15(2):231–6.
Starup-Linde J, Lykkeboe S, Handberg A, Vestergaard P, Høyem P, Fleischer J, et al. Glucose variability and low bone turnover in people with type 2 diabetes. Bone. 2021 Dec 1;153.
Zhang C, Wei W, Chi M, Wan Y, Li X, Qi M, et al. FOXO1 Mediates Advanced Glycation End Products Induced Mouse Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 Cell Apoptosis and Dysfunctions. J Diabetes Res. 2019;1(1):1–11.
Aryana IGPS, Rini SS, Soejono CH. Importance of Sclerostin as Bone-Muscle Mediator Crosstalk. Ann Geriatr Med Res. 2022 Jun 1;26(2):72–82.
Asadipooya K, Uy EM. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), Receptor for AGEs, Diabetes, and Bone: Review of the Literature. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Jul 23;3(10):1799–818.
Eninanc I, Yeler DY, Cinar Z. Evaluation of The Effect of Bruxism on Mandibular Cortical Bone Using Radiomorphometric Indices on Panoramic Radiographs. Niger J Clin Pract. 2021;24(11):1742–8.
Fauziah H, Sumarsongko T, Azhari A. Perbedaan Ketinggian Tulang Kortikal Mandibula Antara Penderita Bruxism dan Bukan Penderita Bruxism berdasarkan Indeks Panoramik Mandibular. Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran. 2020 Aug 31;32(2):113–8.
Epsilawati L, Pramanik F, Ambarlita Y. Assessment of The Mandibular  Cortical Bone Quality in Patient  with  Diabetes Mellitus Type II. Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. 2018;2(2):1–5.
Ribeiro RA, Barbosa J de S, Amaral JMBL do, Franco CR, Cortes ARG, Costa C. Correlation Between Index Panoramic Radiomorfometric and Primary Stability of Implants. RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia. 2018 Sep;66(3):219–24.
Singh A, Handa H, Shinde BM and CV. Evaluation of Radiomorphometric Indices of Normal and Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Female Patients by Radiographs. Int J Adv Res (Indore). 2019 Jun 30;7(6):952–64.
Wai A, Yeung K, Mozos I. The Innovative and Sustainable Use of Dental Panoramic Radiographs for the Detection of Osteoporosis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(2449):1–11.
Alkhader M, Aldawoodyeh A, Abdo N. Usefulness of Measuring Bone Density of Mandibular Condyle in Patients at Risk of Osteoporosis: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study. Eur J Dent. 2018 Jul 1;12(3):363–8.
Karadag I, Yilmaz HG. Evaluation of Change in Trabecular Bone Structure Surrounding Dental Implants by Fractal Dimension Analysis and Comparison with Radiomorphometric Indicators: A Retrospective Study. PeerJ. 2022 Mar 22;10(13145):1–14.
Firman RN, Sufiawati I, Primarti RS, Nurrachman AS, Damayanti MA. Mandibular Bone Quality of Panoramic Radiographs in HIV-Infected Children. Dentino J Kedokt Gigi. 2020;5(1):85–9.
Vijay G, Chitroda P, Katti G, Shahbaz S, Baba I, Bhuvaneshwari. Prediction of Osteoporosis Using Dental Radiographs and Age in Females. J Midlife Health. 2015;6(2).
Govindraju P, Mahesh Kumar TS, Chandra P, Balaji P, Sowbhagya MB. Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible: Biomarker for Osteoporosis. In: Biomarkers in Bone Disease. Preedy V. Springer, Dordrecht; 2015. p. 1–23.
Noda M, Kawashima Y, Ito K, Hirahara N, Sawada E, Iizuka N, et al. Assessment of Maxillary Fracture Risk Ising Classification of The Mandibular Inferior Cortical Shape by Pantomography. J Hard Tissue Biol. 2018;27(2):117–20.
Azhari A. the Analysis of Mandibular Trabeculae Alveolar Process on Post-Menopausal Women Through Panoramic Radiograph. Dentika Dent J. 2017;20(2):52–6.
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Published
2023-12-31
How to Cite
SARIFAH, Norlaila; NURRAHMAN, Tri. Differences of bone quality in patients type II diabetes mellitus with mandibular cortical index analysis on panoramic radiograph. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia (JRDI), [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 95-100, dec. 2023. ISSN 2686-1321. Available at: <http://jurnal.pdgi.or.id/index.php/jrdi/article/view/1113>. Date accessed: 24 apr. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.32793/jrdi.v7i3.1113.

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