Mengenal gambaran ultrasound lesi jinak, ganas dan metastasis pada nodus limfa leher menggunakan ultrasonografi

  • Lusi Epsilawati Departemen Radiologi Kedokteran Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, 40132 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3221-747X
  • Hendra Polii Departemen Radiologi Kedokteran Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Bandung, Indonesia, 40164
  • Erna Herawati Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Mulut, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, 40132

Abstract

Objectives: This study is aimed to review the ultrasound imaging (USG) of benign, malignant and metastases lesions in cervical lymph nodes.
Literature Review: This article was written based on some scientific literatures in which will explain the interpretation technique and imaging characteristic to distinguish between benign, malignancies and metastases lesions in cervical lymph nodes through ultrasound imaging. There are many pathological conditions may occur in cervical lymph nodes that can be analyzed in ultrasound. The signs of benign, malignant and metastases lesions in cervical lymph nodes, all may have different characteristics. Those characteristics could help the practitioners and radiologists to distinguish the lesions based on several assessment categories. Hopefully, the reader of this article could understand the technique to distinguish benign, malignant and metastases lesions in neck lymph nodes in ultrasound.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography is the most commonly used modality for lymph nodes examination, although the accuracy cannot be trusted or guaranteed 100% but this modality always be used and becoming one of all choices. Through the ultrasound, it could be concluded that some of the characteristics of the assessment can be a guide to distinguish benign, malignant and metastases lesions in cervical lymph nodes.

Author Biographies

Lusi Epsilawati, Departemen Radiologi Kedokteran Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, 40132
Staff
Hendra Polii, Departemen Radiologi Kedokteran Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Bandung, Indonesia, 40164
Staff 
Erna Herawati, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Mulut, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, 40132
Staff 

References

Standring. S. Lymphoid tissues: Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice ed 41st. Philadelphia. 2016. P:73-4
Young B, O'Dowd G, Woodford. Wheater's functional histology: a text and colour atlas ed. 6th . Philadephia: Elsevier.2013. P: 209–210
Jenny K. H, Jyotsna Vanka, Benjamin J.L, Christine M. Glastonbury. Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Head and Neck Cancer With CT and MRI: Tips, Traps, and a Systematic Approach. AJR . Vol. 200. 2013. P17-25
Standring, Susan, ed. (2016). "Lymphoid tissues". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia. pp. 73–4.
Young B, O'Dowd G, Woodford P (2013). Wheater's functional histology: a text and colour atlas (6th ed.). Philadephia: Elsevier. pp. 209–210. 
Dupont G, Schmidt C, Yilmaz E, Oskouian RJ, Macchi V, de Caro R, Tubbs RS. Our current understanding of the lymphatics of the brain and spinal cord. Clinical Anatomy. 2019. 32 (1): 117–121. 
Willard-Mack CL (Normal structure, function, and histology of lymph nodes Toxicologic Pathology. 2016. 34 (5): 409–24. 
Katakai T, Hara T, Lee JH, Gonda H, Sugai M, Shimizu A. A novel reticular stromal structure in lymph node cortex: an immuno-platform for interactions among dendritic cells, T cells and B cells. International Immunology.2016. 16 (8): 1133–42. 
Kaldjian EP, Gretz JE, Anderson AO, Shi Y, Shaw S. Spatial and molecular organization of lymph node T cell cortex: a labyrinthine cavity bounded by an epithelium-like monolayer of fibroblastic reticular cells anchored to basement membrane-like extracellular matrix. International Immunology. 2001. 13 (10): 1243–53. doi:10.1093/intimm/13.10.1243. 
Henrikson RC, Mazurkiewicz JE.  Histology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.1997,
Curtin HD, Ishwaran H, Mancuso AA, Dalley RW, Caudry DJ, McNeil BJ. Comparison of CT and MR imaging in staging of neck metastases. Radiology 1998; 207:123–130
Schwartz LH, Bogaerts J, Ford R, et al. Evaluation of lymph nodes with RECIST 1.1. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45:261–267
Kaji AV, Mohuchy T, Swartz JD. Imaging of cervical lymphadenopathy. Semin Ultrasound CTMR 1997; 18:220–249
Goldenberg D, Begum S, Westra WH, et al. Cystic lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck cancer: an HPV-associated phenomenon. Head Neck 2008; 30:898–903
Sorin M. Dudea, Manuela Lenghel, Carolina Botar-Jid, Dan Vasilescu, Magdalena Duma. Ultrasonography of superficial lymph nodes: benign vs. Malignant. Med Ultrason. 2012, Vol. 14, no. 4, 294-306
Ahuja AT, Ying M, Ho SY, et al. Ultrasound of malignant cervical lymph nodes. Cancer Imaging 2008;8:48-56.
Khanna R, Sharma AD, Khanna S, Kumar M, Shukla RC. Usefulness of ultrasonography for the evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy. World J Surg Oncol 2011. Vol.9. P: 29.
Sohn YM, Kwak JY, Kim EK, Moon HJ, Kim SJ, Kim MJ. Diagnostic approach for evaluation of lymph node metastasis from thyroid cancer using ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;194:38–43.
Ahuja AT, Ying M. Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005;184:1691-1699.
Ahuja A, Ying M, King A, Yuen HY. Lymph node hilus: gray scale and power Doppler sonography of cervical nodes. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:987-992.
Ying M, Ahuja A, Brook F, Metreweli C. Vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of normal cervical lymph nodes: variations with nodal size. Clin Radiol 2001;56:416- 419.
Ahuja A, Ying M. Sonography of neck lymph nodes. Part II: abnormal lymph nodes. Clin Radiol 2003;58:359-366.
Ahuja AT, Ying M, Ho SS, Metreweli C. Distribution of intranodal vessels in differentiating benign from metastatic neck nodes. Clin Radiol 2001;56:197-201.
Ahuja A, Ying M. Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy: is power Doppler sonography routinely indicated? Ultrasound Med Biol 2003. Vol. 29. P:353-359.
van den Brekel MW, Castelijns JA, Snow GB. The size of lymph nodes in the neck on sonograms as a radiologic criterion for metastasis: how reliable is it? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998. Vol.19. P:695–700.
Saiag P, Bernard M, Beauchet A, Bafounta ML, Bourgault- Villada I, Chagnon S. Ultrasonography using simple diagnostic criteria vs palpation for the detection of regional lymph node metastases of melanoma. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:183-189.
Wolfgang Dähnert. Radiology Review Manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.2011. P 559
Richard M. Gore, Marc S. Levine. High Yield Imaging Gastrointestinal HIGH YIELD in Radiology. Elsevier Health Sciences.2004. P.942
Laurence Knott. Generalised Lymphadenopathy. Patient UK. Retrieved 2017-03-04.Last checked: 24 March 2014.
Bazemore AW, Smucker D. Lymphadenopathy and malignancy. American Family Physician.2002.  66 (11): 2103–10. 
Butler, T. Plague into the 21st century. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2006. 49 (5): 736–742.
M. Sorin. Dudea, Manuela L, Carolina B J, Vasilescu, Magdalena D. Ultrasonography of superficial lymph nodes: benign vs. Malignant. Med Ultrason. 2012, Vol. 14, no. 4, 294-306
Sumi M, Ohki M, Nakamura T. Comparison of sonography and CT for differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001;176:1019- 1024.
Gritzmann N. Sonography of the neck: current potentials and limitations. Ultraschall Med 2005;26:185-196.
Gritzmann N, Hollerweger A, Macheiner P, Rettenbacher T. Sonography of soft tissue masses of the neck. J Clin Ultrasound 2002;30:356-373.
Sohn YM, Kwak JY, Kim EK, Moon HJ, Kim SJ, Kim MJ. Diagnostic approach for evaluation of lymph node metastasis from thyroid cancer using ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;194:38–43
Yonetsu K, Sumi M, Izumi M, Ohki M, Eida S, Nakamura T. Contribution of doppler sonography blood flow information to the diagnosis of metastatic cervical nodes in patients with head and neck cancer: assessment in relation to anatomic levels of the neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22:163-169.
Catalano O. Critical analysis of the ultrasonographic criteria for diagnosing lymph node metastasis in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a systematic review. J UltrasoundMed 2011;30:547-560.
Ramanujam Prativadi, Nirvikar Dahiya. Aya Kamaya, Shweta Bhatt. Ultrasound Characteristics of Benign vs Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes. Ultrasound CT MRI. 2018. Vol. 38.P:506-515. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ying M, AhujaAT. Ultrasoundofnecklymphnodes: How todo, how theylook? Radiography. 2006. Vol.12(2). P:105-117
Ahuja A,YingM. Sonography of neck lymph nodes. PartII: Abnormal lymphnodes. ClinRadiol 2003. Vol. 58(5). P:359-366
Ahuja A,YingM. Anover view of neck node sonography. Invest Radiol. 2002. Vol. 37(6). P:333-342
A.T. Ahujaa, M. Yingb, S.Y. Hoa, G. Antonioa, Y.P. Leea, A.D. Kinga and K.T. Wonga. Ultrasound of malignant cervical lymph nodes. Cancer Imaging. 2008. Vol 8. P:48-56.
Solbiati L, Rizzatto G, Bellotti E, Montali G, Cioffi V, Croce F. High-resolution sonography of cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer: criteria for differentiation of reactive versus malignant nodes. Radiology. 1988 Vol. 169. P:113.
Tohnosu N, Onoda S, Isono K. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer with special reference to the relationship between the short to long axis ratio (S/L) and the cancer content. J Clin Ultrasound. 1989. Vol.17. P: 101.
Ying M, Ahuja A, Brook F, Brown B, Metreweli C. Sonographic appearance and distribution of normal cervical lymph nodes in a Chinese population. J Ultrasound Med. 1996. Vol.15. P: 431.
Vassallo P, Wernecke K, Roos N, Peters PE. Differentiation of benign from malignant superficial lymphadenopathy: the role of high-resolution US. Radiology.1992. Vol.183. P: 215.
GuptaA, RahmanK, ShahidM,et al .Sonograph cassess mentof cervical lymphadeno pathy:Role of high-resolution and color Doppler imaging. Head Neck. 2011. Vol.33(3). P:297-302
Rosário PWS, de Faria S, Bical hoL, et al. Ultrasonographic differentiation between metastatic and benign lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. JUltrasound Med 2005. Vol. 24(10). P:1385-1389
Ahuja A,Ying M. Sonography of neck lymph nodes. Part II. Abnormal lymphnodes. Clin Radiol, 2003. Vol. 58(5). P:359-366
Vassallo P, Werneck eK, Roos N,et al. Differentiation of benign from malignant superficial lympha denopathy: Therole of high-resolution US. Radiology. 1992. Vol. 183(1). P:215-220
Shozushima M, Suzuki M, Nakasima T, Yanagisawa Y, Sakamaki K, Takeda Y. Ultrasound diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 1990; 19: 165.
Johnson JT. A surgeon looks at cervical lymph nodes. Radiology 1990; 175: 607
Ying M, Ahuja A. Sonography of neck lymph nodes. PartI : Normal lymph nodes. Clin Radio 2003. Vol. l58(5). P:351-358
Saha S, Woodhouse N.R, Gok G,et al. Ultrasound guided core biopsy, fine needle aspiration cytology and surgical excision biopsy in the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck. An eleven year experience. Eur J Radio . 2011. Vol. l80(3). P:792-795.
Dudea S. M, Lenghel M ,Botar. Jid C,et al. Ultrasonography of superficial lymphnodes :Benign vs malignant. Med Ultrasonogr. 2012. Vol. 14(4).P:294
Vassallo P, Edel G, Roos N, Naguib A, Peters PE. In-vitro high-resolution ultrasonography of benign and malignant
lymph nodes. A sonographic-pathologic correlation. Invest Radiol 1993; 28: 698.
Van Overhagen H, Lameris JS, Berger MY et al. Improved assessment of supraclavicular and abdominal metastases in oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction carcinoma with the combination of ultrasound and computed tomography. Br J Radiol 1993; 66: 203.
Ying M, Ahuja AT, Evans R, King W, Metreweli C. Cervical lymphadenopathy: sonographic differentiation between tuberculous nodes and nodal metastases from non-head and neck carcinomas. J Clin Ultrasound 1998; 26: 383.
Baatenburg de Jong RJ, Rongen RJ, Lameris JS, Harthoorn M, Verwoerd CD, Knegt P. Metastatic neck disease. Palpation vs ultrasound examination. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989; 115: 689
Evans RM, Ahuja A, Metreweli C. The linear echogenic hilus in cervical lymphadenopathy _ a sign of benignity or malignancy? Clin Radiol 1993; 47: 262.
Rubaltelli L, Proto E, Salmaso R, Bortoletto P, Candiani F, Cagol P. Sonography of abnormal lymph nodes in vitro: correlation of sonographic and histologic findings. Am J Roentgenol 1990; 155: 1241.
Ying M, Ahuja A, Brook F, Metreweli C. Vascularity and greyscale sonographic features of normal cervical lymph nodes: variations with nodal size. Clin Radiol 2001; 56: 416.
Solbiati L, Cioffi V, Ballarati E. Ultrasonography of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am 1992; 30: 941.
Published
2020-01-15
How to Cite
EPSILAWATI, Lusi; POLII, Hendra; HERAWATI, Erna. Mengenal gambaran ultrasound lesi jinak, ganas dan metastasis pada nodus limfa leher menggunakan ultrasonografi. Jurnal Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial Indonesia, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 3, p. 21-31, jan. 2020. ISSN 2686-1321. Available at: <http://jurnal.pdgi.or.id/index.php/jrdi/article/view/442>. Date accessed: 08 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.32793/jrdi.v3i3.442.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.